4000 B.C.

Beginning of gold use in Central and East Europe.

3000 b.c.

Beginning of gold use in ancient Egypt and Sumer empire.

2500 b.c.

The funeral equipment of pharaoh Djoser of 1st dynasty includes golden jewellery which ranks among the oldest archaeological discoveries in Egypt.

1500 b.c.

The first references to gold as a means of international trade come from ancient Egypt. The first coins, so-called shekels, also appeared.

1350 b.c.

Old Babylonians started applying methods to identify gold purity, predominantly so-called touchstone.

1091 b.c.

Gold became an officially recognized form of money in ancient China.

Half of 6th century b.c.

Lydian king Croesus in Asia Minor started minting the first gold coins.

58 b.c.

Exploitation of Gallic gold mines enabled Julius Caesar to repay his debts in Rome.

1st century b.c.

The Romans started minting a new gold coin called aureus (golden).

780 a.d.

As a result of Charles the Great’s coinage reform a new gold coin –livre – appeared in Central Europe.


Venice became the main gold market.


Minting of the first famous gold coin – ducat – started in Venice and ducat was the most widely used means of payment in Europe in the next 500 years.


English king Edward III ordered minting of gold coin called florin which was replaced by noble soon afterwards.


Seafarer Christopher Columbus discovered American continent and Spanish king Ferdinand of Aragon issued a clear-cut command “Get gold!”


Famous scientist Isaac Newton, as a Warden of the Mint (London), set the price of gold which was maintained for more than 200 years.


Inception of the first U.S. coin which was issued by Ephraim Brasher.


The Coinage Act established bimetallic monetary standard (common circulation of gold and silver coins) in USA and defined U.S. dollar as the equivalent of 24.75 grains (1.6 grams) of gold and 371.25 grains (24.13 grams) of silver.


The first U.S. gold rush erupted in North Carolina. The mines there became the basic source of gold for the main U.S. mint in Philadelphia.


Start of gold rush in California.


Gold prospector Edward Hammond Hargraves discovered gold in New South Wales, Australia.


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